Tag Archives: masters athletes

Masters CrossFit Athlete John Mariotti Trains for the CrossFit Games 2014

John Mariotti (age 57) stands at the top of this year’s Masters CrossFit Open Competition. John’s path to Crossfit began with a meniscus tear that brought his ultramarathon-career to a sudden stop. He turned his focus to Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, but was frustrated by his younger, stronger, faster competitors. John bought a book by Pavel Tsatsouline, the famed Russian Kettlebell Master and author of The Russian Kettlebell Challenge: Xtreme Fitness for Hard Living Comrades and started training on his own. He discovered CrossFit in 2009, using it to gain an edge in Jiu-Jitsu, but he quickly fell in love with CrossFit as a sport in itself.

John has been a life-long athlete. In addition to Jui-jitsu and ultra marathons, John has been involved in TaeKwon-Do (6th degree black belt) Grappling, sprint triathlons, swimming , football, wrestling, track, water polo and snowboarding. Years of training and competition have taken their toll. It’s tough being a masters athlete. “My shoulder is tweaky, my knee has some tendinitis . . . but I’ve suffered nothing that has forced me to stop training. Some things caused a bit of a slow down or modification but not much. I’m pretty lucky that way.”

John’s strategy for avoiding injury includes lots of mobility training and massage. He goes for Assisted Release Therapy weekly, does thorough warm-ups before WODs, sleeps well, takes fish oil. “Besides that,” he says “I try not to do anything too stupid.”

Training for the games.

John placed 31st in his division in the 2013 CrossFit Open. John was extremely fit, but he knew he would need to fine tune his game in order to make it into the top 20. He looked for a coach, and was taken on by CJ Martin of CrossFit Invictus.   CJ worked with John to improve his technique for all the elements that had appeared in the CrossFit games. John has found the time spent with CJ to be extremely helpful. “CJ is a master coach in this area. He seems to know just how hard to push and when to back off a bit. He also keeps my mobilization and diet and sleep in mind as well.”

Today, John feels as good as he has felt all year. That’s a good feeling coming into competition. This has been a hard and busy year for John. He has moved from California to Dallas, TX to open a CrossFit box of his own: CrossFit Odyssey. In spite of the pressures of opening a business and adjusting to a new environment John has continued to meet challenges head-on. He competed in the TX state weightlifting championships in January and took first place in his age and weight division.

Diet for a Masters CrossFit Athlete

crossfit shirts or kettlebell shirts for crossfit athletes
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John trains on a diet of “real food.” “Food is a joy for me and I never feel deprived eating the way I do.” He eats mostly paleo with lots of animal protein, fats and vegetables. He includes a lot of carbohydrates (potatoes are a huge favorite) as well. He does not eat grains with the exception of rice and avoids dairy and sugar.   He is an infrequent drinker.   John cooks for the week on Sundays. He has been following this diet for years, but has only recently increased his carbohydrate consumption. The carbs have been helping him deal with his high volume of training.

Advice for Masters Athletes in Training and Competition

When asked what advice he could off fellow masters athletes John responded :“It is easy for us get over-trained, especially if we just follow the same programming the younger guys do. Recovery is slower and PRs and gains are further between. Most of us still have that fire and try to keep up with the younger guys and that can be costly. Our minds and spirits are willing but the flesh doesn’t cooperate quite the way it did in years gone by. That being said…I can do things now that I could not do in the past…muscle ups, handstand pushups and double unders come to mind. I can lift more weight than I could 5 years ago. I move as quick as I did years ago and I have a much better “engine” than just a few months ago. My resting heartbeat is 43, which is as low as it has ever been. We can all get better…stronger, more skilled, and have better technique as long as we train smart as well as hard.”

John can be found at CrossFit Odyssey in Dallas, TX.

Masters Athletes Need More Protein than Younger Athletes

Masters Athletes may have some nutritional needs that differ from those of younger athletes. By Masters, we’re referring to athletes over age 40. This is currently the cut-off for Crossfit. Here’s what we know about Masters and protein:

  • Masters athletes may need more protein than younger athletes regardless of sport.
  • Consuming more protein may slow normal loss of muscle mass that occurs over time.
  • Masters athletes doing resistance training may need more protein than younger people because they don’t synthesize muscle proteins as quickly.
woman masters crossfit athlete high protein diet
Masters Crossfit Athlete competes in the Crossfit Games Open 14.1 in the 50-54 age category. She is wearing a WODMasters singlet. Check our designs.

Masters Athlete Nutrition: what we know today.

The amount of FDA recommended protein stands at about 0.66 grams per kilogram of body weight.  This number was derived by looking at many studies of people.  Some of the studies looked at the average amount eaten by healthy people.  Others looked at nitrogen balance: how much comes in vs how much comes out.  People who lose more nitrogen than they take in through food are said to be in negative nitrogen balance.  For these studies, the recommended amount would be the amount where the amount of nitrogen coming in is equal to the amount leaving (urine).  There are a number of limits with these approaches.  They do not answer the question of “what is best”.   They have not focused on athletes or older adults.   Weight lifters and others trying to add muscle have traditionally eaten a lot of protein.   Way more than 0.66 grams/kilogram. Eating more than the recommended amount of protein doesn’t seem to hurt.  Just don’t leave out other nutrients.

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Scientists who work in this area have concluded that 0.8 g/kg is better for masters athletes than the old level of 0.66 g/kg.  Many people will find number low and may get upset about. Don’t worry if you’ve just had a WTF moment.  After all, we’ve been urged to consume at least a full gram of protein, 1.2 g/kg or even more. This may be perfectly valid if you are interested in strength gain or preservation of muscle mass during aging. We simply don’t know what is “optimal.”  “Optimal” will, of course, depend on many different factors.  The increase from 0.66 g/kg to 0.8 g/kg is 25%.  That is a big jump.

Here’s what may help preserve or increase muscle mass for masters athletes

  • Eat more than 0.8 g/kg/day to increase strength (you have to lift too.)
  • Get some protein soon after a training session
  • Some recommend taking 5 g/day of creatine monohydrate.  There is some evidence that it can boost strength gains and help increase fat free mass.  Keep in mind that creatine can also increase water retention.  Some of the gains in fat free mass may just be water.
  • For endurance: sadly, there is no evidence that carb loading helps.
  • Carbohydrates are important.  If your body doesn’t have carbohydrates it will use some of your protein for energy.  It will use fat too, but it will also use muscle.

What kind of protein is best for Masters Athletes?

There is a lot of research showing that red meat increases risk of cancer.  I know a lot of people like red meat.  But evidence says: avoid it.  If you do eat red meat avoid grilling or charring it.  Burning food creates carcinogens.  Cooking fats at high temperatures produces acrolein.  Acrolein may contribute to development of Alzheimers.  Vegetable protein (beans and nuts) seems to lower risk of cancer.  It also seems to lower risk of heart disease and diabetes.  The paleo diet is against beans.  There is really no reason not to eat beans other than that some popular diet books put them in the “bad” category.  Beans should be well-cooked.  If you are not used to eating beans . . . you will probably get better at digesting them peacefully.  You may even get good at it.

Take away:

It looks like masters athletes need more protein than others.  The  recommended increase from 0.66 g/kg/day to .80 g/kg/day is a 25% increase.  Until we know more, increasing your protein intake may help you maintain or increase muscle mass. Limit red meat. Many people seem to be devoted to red meat, but the vast majority of research indicates it is a risky protein source.  Avoid fish high in mercury (tuna, swordfish).  Mercury accumulates in the body over time and has been linked to a number of poor health outcomes. Increasing protein intake with vegetable protein is a healthy strategy.

 

 

Tarnopolsky MA (2008). Nutritional consideration in the aging athlete. Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine, 18 (6), 531-8 PMID: 19001886

Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria C, Vupputuri S, Myers L, & Whelton PK (2001). Legume consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Archives of internal medicine, 161 (21), 2573-8 PMID: 11718588

Position Statement (2010). Selected Issues for the Master Athlete and the Team Physician Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 (4), 820-833 DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d19a0b

New Evidence on the Benefits of Sprinting for Long-Term Health and Fitness

ResearchBlogging.orgBenefits Sprinting and Jumping: New Evidence

I began distance running at the age of 12 and have kept with it for decades now. Running at a mellow pace has helped me unwind, de-stress and keep my sanity through turbulent times. Until I started CrossFit about five years ago. While I miss the runners high there are some great benefits to including weights, varied movement and group training. There is plenty of research on the benefits of running and aerobic exercise. Research on the benefits of resistance training and high intensity interval training (which resembles CrossFit in some respects) is showing that these forms of exercise are important. They may, in fact, be more effective and provide greater benefits for long-term health.  Here is an outline of some possible benefits or sprinting.  Or being a sprinter.

Sprinting and Jumping help you stay strong so you can beat up young people.
Sprinting and Jumping help you stay strong so you can beat up young people.

Today’s Study: Benefits of Sprinting (or being a Sprinter) vs. Other Types of Runners

Today’s study was published last year (2013) in the journal Osteoporosis International.  Subjects were Experienced Masters Runners between 35 and 90 years of age.   Runners were asked to identify their strongest running distance:

  1. Short Distance (400 meters, triple jump and/or long jump
  2. Middle Distance (800 meters to to 1500 meters
  3. Long Distance (2000 meters to marathon)

Information on numbers of years of training, age, gender, age of menarche, and age of menopause (when appropriate) were collected.  Subjects then completed a series of tests:

  1. Bone Mineral Density
  2. Lean Body Mass Evaluation
  3. Grip Strength (this is a marker of general strength and a predictor of strength in old age).
  4. Neuromuscular Function (evaluated by counter movement jumps and hopping)

Findings (aka Results)

Short distance runners and jumpers did better on all measures with the exception of arm bone mineral density.  There were no significant differences in arm bone density among the athletes tested.  While there are a number of limits to the study the sprinters have better grip strength, higher lean muscle mass, stronger bones, and better neurouscular function than middle or long-distance runners.  An unfortunate finding was that all types of athletes experienced a similar rate of decline in strength and coordination with age. Still, it seems better to start high and land in the middle than to start in the middle and face plant during one’s senior years.

Study Limits:  More research is needed on the long-term benefits of sprinting

The study has a number of limits.  Here they are a few that were apparent to me.  There may be more.  Take a look at the article.  There is a link below.

  1. It was not clear if people who identified as sprinters, middle distance runners or long distance runners trained for these events or if they preferred them.
  2. Subjects may have simply had the body and neurological types to be sprinters, jumpers, middle distance or long distance runners and would have showed similar results whether they had been Masters Runners or not.  Are there benefits or sprinting?  Or benefits from being someone with a sprinters body type?  It would also be good to know what differences are seen between runners and jumpers.

Takeaway:

This study supports growing evidence that sprinting may provide benefits not found in jogging or long distance running. Check out this 61 year old Masters Athlete racing against a 16 year old soccer star.
)

 
Gast U, Belavý DL, Armbrecht G, Kusy K, Lexy H, Rawer R, Rittweger J, Winwood K, Zieliński J, & Felsenberg D (2013). Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 24 (7), 2033-42 PMID: 23242430

Masters Athletes: Long-Term Impact of Strength Training on Muscle Strength

A Crossfit Masters Athlete shares his outlook with a young Crossfit trainer
A Crossfit Masters Athlete shares his outlook with a young Crossfit trainer at CrossFit Seven in Fort Worth, TX

We can expect to lose about 1% of our muscle strength each year after age 50. By age 65 that rate of loss increases. There are some interesting differences in the how and why of strength loss. When researchers look at strength they tend to look at static muscle strength and dynamic muscle strength. Basically static muscle strength refers to the ability to generate a force. Dynamic muscle strength basically refers to strength in which bones and tendons actually move. As people get older dynamic muscle strength suffers more than static muscle strength. Muscle power (the ability to do a strength movement quickly) also suffers. Muscle power declines faster than strict strength. This is one of the reasons why Masters Athletes, particularly Crossfit Masters Athletes, do not perform as well as younger athletes. You can tell a Masters Athlete over and over that he/she needs to move quickly in order “to get under the bar.” But, simply put, Masters Athletes are physiologically different than younger athletes. As stubborn and strong as they are, they may not be able to move their elbows any faster. At least not yet.

Don’t give up on Masters Athletes. Don’t give up in general.

Strength training can improve muscle strength and muscle power in Masters Athletes. This has been documented in short-term studies. But what about over the long haul? A recently published study sheds some light. A fairly large group of older adults (233) participated in a 1-year strength training program. Measurements were taken before and after. Researchers also evaluated the condition of 83 former participants some 7 years later. Strength and power improved in adults who completed the training. (This is hopefully no surprise). What is surprising and good news is that the adults who completed the training had better measures of strength, power and speed seven years after completing the program. Measures for everyone (trained and untrained) were lower than they had been though.

This study has its limits. It was not clear (or unknown) if subjects kept working out or not. Nor was it known how much more or less active subjects in the control group might have been. Still, it is nice to know that positive effects were seen seven years after an exercise program was completed.

Take away message:

So far research (and anecdotal evidence) indicate you should not stop working out. Trainers: keep encouraging your masters athletes.

Kennis E, Verschueren SM, Bogaerts A, Van Roie E, Boonen S, & Delecluse C (2013). Long-term impact of strength training on muscle strength characteristics in older adults. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 94 (11), 2054-60 PMID: 23831385

Masters CrossFit Regional Competitions: Unquenched desires

A petition is underway to impel CrossFit HQ to include Masters level Athletes in CrossFit Regionals Competitions.  At the moment of this writing there were over 2500 signatures.  I can understand HQ’s reluctance.  Big events are expensive and time consuming.  And there is a possibility (just a possibility) that Masters Athletes are not as exciting to watch as younger athletes.  Fewer endorsements.  Fewer admirers . . . hard to say.  In any case, here is what the petition looks like:
“To:
CrossFit Games, CrossFit Games HQ
With only 20 athletes in the various masters’ categories selected for the CrossFit Games, offering regional competitions would aid the vetting process, increase excitement and foster participation by athletes in the masters’ divisions. Also, regional competition will help increase networking and community building among regional affiliates. Thank you for your time and consideration.

Sincerely,
[Your name]”

You can sign this by clicking here.

Regional Crossfit Games Competitions

There are alternatives.  There are a number of other outfits organizing masters Crossfit competitions.  An interesting points were recently put forth by Ray Garcia of Shoreline CrossFit:

  • First, people want to be acknowledged.
  • Second, they seem to want to be acknowledged within the CrossFit community.
  • Third, there are a lot of “masters” but we need to be segmented by age because clearly the biological evidence is we degrade with age.
  • Fourth, Crossfit proclaims meritocracy … survival of the “fittest” literally. So, how about a privately organized competition by region playing off the already existing larger masters competitions. For example, TJ’s runs a masters event on the west coast games style and so do Shoreline and CFNE. There are other large scale masters events. So, how about if those events feed “Winners” to a few centralized events, and to an eventual “National competition” and age bracket winners.

 

Having sent a young athlete to a CrossFit Regionals Competition and having served as a volunteer behind the scenes I can attest to the excitement and fun of Regional CrossFit games.  I hope CrossFit HQ will include Masters in Regionals CrossFit competitions.  Its probably a matter of time.  Oh.  And Money.  Let’s not forget that either.

 

 

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Mens Eye Pood Kettlebell Shirt
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Masters Athletes: life-long physical activity helps keep your brain from falling apart

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Masters athletes complain about aches and pain just as much as anyone else.  Maybe more.  They may complain more because they tend to hurt themselves fairly often.   Masters athletes can be surprisingly competitive about who hurt what more.  Let’s be honest though, being competitive about pain is better than being depressed about it.  As we wonder about what is happening to our bodies its nice to hear some good news now and then, along with a little assurance that we are doing ourselves at least a little good.

Coconut oil and CrossFit Masters
CrossFit Masters Athletes may have a cognitive edge.  Hard to tell from looking at these two though.

Latest research on the benefits of life-long exercise on cognitive function (or “thinking” for those who prefer simpler terms.)

Most scientific journals publish on the first of the month.  This is when new research becomes available to the public.  Today’s post is about a new study published in the journal Neurolimage.  Researchers at the University of Texas Southwest Medical Center report on brain structural differences between masters athletes and sedentary older adults.  This is not the same thing as functional differences.  However, structural changes in the brain during adulthood are just about never good news.  Unfortunately the brain changes as we age . . . and generally not for the better.  The masters athletes in the study were aerobically trained (runners not weightlifters) and ranged in age from 61 to 80.  Brains of masters athletes showed high white matter microstructural integrity than did the brains of sedentary people.  The brain contains white matter and grey matter.  Both are important.  However, white matter contains heavily myelinated neurons that transmit information to other neurons.  Healthy white matter is needed for the brain to function as a unit so you can find your keys and glasses and remember why you wanted them.  The white matter in masters athletes was specifically “healthier” in brain areas responsible for memory and for motor function.  Everyone appreciates memory.  Or at least misses it.  Masters athletes may be more attuned to changes in perception and coordination (motor function).

What else is new about life-long aerobic fitness and brain function?

Another strong woman shirt for strong women.  Be fit and wear an awesome shirt.  For strong women who love art, irony and kettlebells
Another strong woman shirt for strong women. Be fit and wear an awesome shirt. For strong women who love art, irony and kettlebells

Masters athletes also had less “white matter hyperintensities”.  These white matter hyperintensities are thought to be demyelinated white matter (messed up brain matter).  They are associated with increased risk of stroke and dementia.  Not having them is a good thing.  Research continues to show that physical fitness is important for brain function.  Even just a few months of aerobic exercise can increase brain volume and improve cognitive function.  Anaerobic exercise like weight lifting may help too.  There just hasn’t been as much study of weightlifters and cognitive function.  For those of us who are CrossFit athletes:  Crossfit may also help maintain brain fitness, but its too early to tell.

 

Tseng BY, Gundapuneedi T, Khan MA, Diaz-Arrastia R, Levine BD, Lu H, Huang H, & Zhang R (2013). White matter integrity in physically fit older adults. NeuroImage, 82, 510-6 PMID: 23769914

Debette S, & Markus HS (2010). The clinical importance of white matter hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 341 PMID: 20660506

Protein intake and recovery for Masters Athletes

How much protein do Athletes need?

Younger athletes may benefit from increased protein intake in a number of ways. Increased protein intake may result in muscle strength gains in young adults in as quickly as six weeks (Candow et al. 2006).  Protein supplements may also increase strength in elderly people (average age 83) as well (Bjorkman et al. 2012).  The Bjorkman study of 106 elderly men and women showed a 2.1% gain in body weight with a high-leucine whey protein supplement vs. a 1.9% loss in weight with a placebo.  This was over a six month period.  Leucine is important because it serves as a trigger for muscle synthesis.  Leucine is also a branched chain amino acid (bcaa).  This does not mean supplements are better than a healthy diet. We have evolved to eat food, after all. However, we also seem to have evolved to not do as well as we’d like as we get older. Masters athletes may benefit from increased protein intake.
CrossFit Games Masters Competitor Ken Cutrer of CrossFit EST,

Protein may speed recovery.

Protein intake after exercise may also help speed recovery.  This would be important to athletes participating in an extended period of competition. The CrossFit games, for example. Or in similar high output situations. Whey protein hydrolysate increases the rate of recovery after resistance training.  When protein is hydrolysated it has been partially broken down.  This speeds absorption.  Unhydrolysated proteins (normal proteins from food) may take longer.   This may mean recovery takes 6 hrs. rather than 24 hrs (Buckley et al. 2010).

Masters athletes may benefit from protein supplements.

Older athletes take longer to recover, and lose ground faster during periods of inactivity. Hydrolysated protein supplements and supplements with high leucine content may help Masters Athletes.

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Candow DG, Burke NC, Smith-Palmer T, & Burke DG (2006). Effect of whey and soy protein supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 16 (3), 233-44 PMID: 16948480

Buckley JD, Thomson RL, Coates AM, Howe PR, DeNichilo MO, & Rowney MK (2010). Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise. Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia, 13 (1), 178-81 PMID: 18768358

Björkman, M., Finne-Soveri, H., & Tilvis, R. (2012). Whey protein supplementation in nursing home residents. A randomized controlled trial European Geriatric Medicine, 3 (3), 161-166 DOI: 10.1016/j.eurger.2012.03.010

CrossFit Weightlifting Flexibility and the Masters CrossFit Athlete

CrossFit trainers and Masters CrossFit: weightlifting flexibility strength

You’ve probably heard it. “pull yourself under the bar”, “you’re not going down enough” “full range of motion”.  Sometimes CrossFit trainers seem to get aggravated and may end up ignoring masters athletes who don’t “listen” to their advice. For many the situation is more complex than choosing not to respond.

Bob Takano coaches weightlifting
Coach Bob Takano and Masters Weightlifter Scott Miller work together in an attentive and thoughtful manner. Both would look better in WODMasters shirts
Coach Bob Takano (l) and Masters Athlete Scott Miller (r) at the 2011 SPLWC Championships

The two most important factors limiting weightlifting ability (here we mean simply ability to pull, push, and lift) are balance and joint strength (Fischer et al. 2012). There may be some truth to the “believe in yourself model”, but there are also psycho-neurological factors. If you feel off-balance you will be less comfortable taking risks that may put you further off balance and increase your odds of getting hurt. Your brain is looking out of you. For a lot of people, especially older guys, balancing in a squat is tough. They may not be able to balance steadily in squat position. Increasing flexibility in the hips, legs and back will help them improve form and increase weight loads. Some WODMasters swear that Active Release Technique, a form of Chiropractic, has helped them enormously. Only one paper, a pilot study, was found on this technique, but the authors felt it was promising.

The second point is that of joint strength. Your lifts will be limited by the weakest link. Improving strength in your weak spots will help you achieve greater loads on major lifts like squats, deadlifts, cleans etc. For some, especially for women, the weak link may be hand strength. Those annoying farmer carries may be a good bet.

Crossfit weightlifting and flexibility: getting one on one coaching

Lastly, and most importantly for injury prevention as well as just plain getting better at CrossFit, is get some specialized Olympic Lifting coaching. Someone with a Level 1 CrossFit Certification may know little about proper lifting technique, and even less about teaching. If you are in Southern California, look up Bob Takano. He is an excellent teacher.

Scott Miller has been lifting and working with Bob Takano for about two years.  Great form.

Fischer SL, Brenneman EC, Wells RP, & Dickerson CR (2012). Relationships between psychophysically acceptable and maximum voluntary hand force capacity in the context of underlying biomechanical limitations. Applied ergonomics, 43 (5), 813-20 PMID: 22245635

Robb A, & Pajaczkowski J (2011). Immediate effect on pain thresholds using active release technique on adductor strains: Pilot study. Journal of bodywork and movement therapies, 15 (1), 57-62 PMID: 21147419

CrossFit Masters Training: Strength vs. Endurance and the Master Athlete.

CrossFit Masters Training

Coconut oil and CrossFit Masters
CrossFit Masters Athletes sometimes eat coconut oil

Masters Crossfit athletes face a problem of having to work harder to build speed and strength, and maintain it, than do more junior athletes.  There is unfortunately not a lot of research on Masters’ performance and most of what there is focused on endurance athletes like swimmers, runners and cyclists.  And little to go by when training as a Crossfit Master.  As Crossfit athletes we need everything: speed, endurance and strength.  As a general rule, all masters athletes can keep a competitive edge over peers by combining high-intensity aerobic and resistance training.  This is exactly what we are getting in varied strength and endurance programming.

Endurance athletes score high on cardiovascular markers with greater arterial flexibility, less thickening of arterial walls and better vascular endothelial performance (performance of the inner layers of blood vessels) than others.   Unfortunately they show little preservation of muscle mass over time. Those who are primarily into resistance training maintain muscle mass and function better than others, but do not do as well on cardiovascular tests as those who focus on endurance. The best strategy appears to be to keep up with both and both will be important for Crossfit performance.  That goes for juniors too.

Shibata, S., & Levine, B. (2012). Effect of exercise training on biologic vascular age in healthy seniors AJP: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 302 (6) DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00511.2011

Reaburn, P., & Dascombe, B. (2008). Anaerobic performance in masters athletes European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 6 (1), 39-53 DOI: 10.1007/s11556-008-0041-6