Category Archives: Cross Fit

Celiac Disease: protecting children from Celiac and Gluten Intolerance

What is Celiac Disease?

Celiac disease is a problem of auto-immunity and exposure to the plant protein gluten.  It can be a rough road, especially for children.  They can’t eat the same things other children eat.  Other kids and even adults may not understand that something that seems so normal to them, like a cupcake or sandwich, can cause serious pain and discomfort for a celiac child.

two children without celiac disease
Two children enjoy a Box lunch at CrossFit Seven in Fort Worth, TX.

Celiac disease is more common in people of European descent and probably has a strong genetic component.  However, there are other factors involved as well.  An individual may be predisposed to developing Celiac disease but not get it unless a combination of other factors line up as well.

Can Celiac Disease be Prevented?

One thing I had written about in an earlier post was the possibility that gut flora (microbial species and ratios of species) might influence the development of Celiac disease.  Intestinal flora in infants will be dependent on whether the infant was born by C-section and on whether he or she was breast fed or bottle fed.  The infant digestive system is not completely developed at birth.  It is suited for breast milk.  New research published this month (October 2012) supports a role for bacterial ecology in Celiac Disease.

Delaying introduction of wheat until the infant reaches 12 months of age appears to reduce risk that a genetically at-risk child will develop the disease.  Children with a genetic predisposition to Celiacs may take longer to develop an intestinal ecology favorable for wheat (and possibly other foods) than other children.  The study was a joint project of the University of Maryland School of Medicine and the Universita` Politecnica delle Marche, in Ancona, Italy.

Should I let my children eat gluten?

The answer to that seems to be yes.  Not exposing your children to gluten may make them more likely to develop celiac disease.A Systematic Review of infant feeding practices and incidence of Celiac (Coelicac) disease has also been published very recently (Szajewska et al. 2012).  The authors suggest that the best time to introduce wheat into an infant’s diet is between 4 and 7 months, and that it should be done while the child is still breastfeeding.   Introducing wheat before a child is under 4 months increases the likelihood that he or she will develop Celiac Disease.  Likewise, delaying introduction until a child is older than seven months may also increase risk of Celiac’s.

Gluten-free diets, such as the Paleo Diet, are very popular right now, especially within the CrossFit community.  If you are wondering “what is CrossFit?” here is a link.  If you are wondering “what is the paleo diet?” try this link.  Do parents who raise their non-celiac children on gluten free diets put them at risk of developing celiac disease? That could be the case.  This website, “Growing Up Gluten Free” is written and maintained by a child with celiac disease.  It helped me understand what life is like for kids like her.

There are lots of unknowns still.  The Szajewska paper does a great job of defining what they are.  

Sellitto M, Bai G, Serena G, Fricke WF, Sturgeon C, Gajer P, White JR, Koenig SS, Sakamoto J, Boothe D, Gicquelais R, Kryszak D, Puppa E, Catassi C, Ravel J, & Fasano A (2012). Proof of concept of microbiome-metabolome analysis and delayed gluten exposure on celiac disease autoimmunity in genetically at-risk infants. PloS one, 7 (3) PMID: 22432018

Szajewska H, Chmielewska A, Pieścik-Lech M, Ivarsson A, Kolacek S, Koletzko S, Mearin ML, Shamir R, Auricchio R, Troncone R, & PREVENTCD Study Group (2012). Systematic review: early infant feeding and the prevention of coeliac disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 36 (7), 607-18 PMID: 22905651

CrossFit Games Competition: Recovery between WODs

CrossFit Games Competition and New Research.

There have been several new papers out on recovery from repeated sets of resistance exercise.  These may be important for people headed to the CrossFit Games Regional Competitions.  For those who don’t know, the CrossFit Games regional competitions last for several days and involve multiple WODs per day.  (note: WOD stands for WorkOut of the Day and is the term used for CrossFit workouts.)The same is true for the big CrossFit Games.  In CrossFit every “rep” counts.  Recovery between WODs and recovery between days may determine who moves from regional competition to The CrossFit Games 2013.  This is very different from the CrossFit Open Competition where CrossFit Games competitors may have up to a week before the next WOD.

Ice Between CrossFit WODs

Apply ice to stressed muscles between WODs when possible.  A lot of people will apply ice if they have injured themselves during a competition.  Or if they feel pain.  Applying ice to uninjured muscles during rests may also let an athlete do more sets.  A study published last May (2012) examined the effects of icing on trained rock climbers.  Those who iced their arms and shoulders were able to more pull-ups on the second and third sets than those who rested without ice.  Some things to note: The pull-ups were open hand, which is important to rock climbers.   Closed hand holds are pretty uncommon on rock.

 

Should muscles be iced after the CrossFit Open WODs?

Maybe.  If you find that you are still in pain three days after a WOD you may benefit from applying ice the next go around.  Its uncertain how this works.  It might work by slowing production of enzymes that are involved in producing molecules that cause pain and inflammation.  The pain, tenderness and inflammation  show up about 24 hours after an intense workout is known as delayed onset muscle soreness.  Cold slows down enzyme rates and may slow the onset of pain.  Or may reduce its intensity.

Bacon NT, Wingo JE, Richardson MT, Ryan GA, Pangallo TC, & Bishop PA (2012). Effect of two recovery methods on repeated closed-handed and open-handed weight-assisted pull-ups. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 26 (5), 1348-52 PMID: 22516908

Crossfit High Intensity Interval Workouts

Crossfit – High Intensity Interval Training workouts.

crossfit men discuss womens resistence training
Two ugly crossfit men talk about crossfit, high intensity interval training workouts and WODMASTERS WORKOUT SHIRTS.  Why aren’t they weraing them now?  Get to the shop guys.

Endurance exercise is recommended for cardiovascular health.  Years of research have found that about 30 minutes of cardio will reduce risk of stroke and heart attack.  It will also improve insulin sensitivity, reduce risk of diabetes and improve memory and brain function.  Until very recently, there has been little research on the benefits of CrossFit type exercise on health.  These studies focus on High Intensity Interval Training.  High Intensity Interval Training workouts consist of multiple sets of intense exercise that last 1-4 minutes.  These are spaced with short rest periods.  Or periods of light exercise.

High Intensity Interval Training Workouts with gas mark.
There are so many ways to make life harder. High Intensity Interval Training Workouts can make you hurt faster

Research on this approach to exercise indicates that this approach may number of ways.  These include cardio and respiratory fitness.  And also insulin sensitivity and arterial stiffness.  Arterial stiffness is an indicator for risk of cardiovascular disease.  It is also looking like High Intensity Interval Training may be better at controlling or preventing high blood pressure than the traditional 30 minutes of sustained cardio.

CrossFit Training vs. Running?

The question of is CrossFit better than running is not known yet.  And CrossFit is different than the types of High Intensity Interval Training being tested.  In a nutshell, CrossFit is a fitness program that involves high intensity exercise.  Many different muscle groups are targeted in a CrossFit workout (also known as a CrossFit WOD.)  Workouts may last 5-20 minutes and involve springs, weight lifting, pull-ups and other bodyweight exercises.  If you are wondering “what is CrossFit” try this link. CrossFit exercises may or may not include periods of rest between sets.  However, there is a lot of shifting of focus.  Intensity may be sustained, but not sustained on the same muscle groups.  This might be better for vascular health.

CrossFit High Intensity Interval Training.

crossfit shirt rhino crossfit masters
Stiff, Inflexible, Invincible WODMasters shirt for the Masters CrossFit Athlete. And for other people who may also be stiff and inflexible.

Short periods of high intensity interval training type exercise improve capillary growth.  This allows for greater blood flow to tissues.  Including muscle.   It is possible that intense exercise impacting multiple muscle groups would be better than exercise that impacts only legs (as in running). This is an exciting area of research.  It will be interesting to see what comes up next.  Hopefully more research will be done soon that will look at whether or not CrossFit or High Intensity Interval Training does as well with brain health and control of diabetes.  For a look at recent papers take a look at:

Cocks, M., Shaw, C., Shepherd, S., Fisher, J., Ranasinghe, A., Barker, T., Tipton, K., & Wagenmakers, A. (2012). Sprint interval and endurance training are equally effective in increasing muscle microvascular density and eNOS content in sedentary males The Journal of Physiology, 591 (3), 641-656 DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2012.239566

Spence AL, Carter HH, Naylor LH, & Green D (2013). A prospective randomised longitudinal study involving 6-months of endurance or resistance exercise on conduit artery adaptation in humans. The Journal of physiology PMID: 23247114

CrossFit Bare Cove, Hingham, Massachusetts

CrossFit Bare Cove is a Reebok CrossFit in Hingham, Massachusetts.  This was our first visit to a Reebok-CrossFit.  They have only been open a few months.  We visited in mid-January when they were still working on outfitting their home space.  At the moment they have a small store-front space with industrial carpeting and equipment. The WOD was 6-400 yard run with burpees, pushups and situps.  So we didn’t get a chance to see CrossFit Bare Cove’s approach to lifting.

Hillary Woodyatt of CrossFit Bare Cove with Kettlebell

Bare Cove’s new facility will be about 9,000 square feet.  And they will be swank compared to other boxes we’ve been to (CrossFit Invictus is also very polished).   Locker rooms with showers are under construction, which will be great for Roosters (morning CrossFit-ers) who need to head to work after WOD s.  Bare Cove will also offer massage and “yoga services.”  Oh, and an in-house store that will sell equipment and nutrition supplements.  

Phil Woodyatt warms up at Reebok CrossFit Bare Cove

Reebok CrossFit Bare Cove: what its like:

Reebok CrossFit Bare Cove has a warm, friendly and accepting atmosphere.  The coaches are competent and clear.  The Box members were encouraging and supportive of each other and to visitors.  We were there for a Saturday WOD.  There were several high-school age athletes, and a dozen or so adults in their 30s, 40s and 50s.  This is great for people in this age range who are often in the minority at their CrossFit Box.  However, if you are younger you will find yourself in good company too.  Many of Hingham High School‘s Football Team players workout at Reebok CrossFit Bare Cove.  Members of the high school swim team are seen there as well.  We spoke with Hillary and Phil Woodyatt who moved to CrossFit Bare Cove after CrossFit-ing at CrossFit Hingham.  They like CrossFit Bare Cove a lot and feel it is a great fit.  They have two daughters.  Both also CrossFit at Bare Cove.  One is in junior high and the other is in high school.  Hopefully we’ll hear more about the new facility soon. Check out Reebok CrossFit One to get an idea of what a  Reebok CrossFit looks like compared to independent CrossFit Boxes.

Reebok CrossFit Bare Cove address and hours.

Anchor Plaza 221 Lincoln Street Hingham, MA 02043 Telephone : (339) 200-9426

CrossFit WOD s are held in the early mornings, noon and evenings.  For the full WOD schedule click here.

Caffeine Coffee and Timing for performance and competition

Caffeine Coffee Tea (Coke?).  First we’ll start off talking about the importance of time of day in athletic performance.

Compete, if possible, in the afternoon over the morning.

Keep Austin Weirdfest 5K CrossFit Seven Athlete prepares for the event.
CrossFit Seven Athlete waits for his event. He’d look better in a WODMASTERS shirt

Athletes perform better in the afternoon and early evening than in the morning.This is the case for weightlifting as well as for endurance exercise like running, swimming and cycling.  Even penmanship is less precise in the morning.  Possibly it’s a warm up issue.  But it looks like a circadian rhythm issue too.  The circadian rhythm is an internal clock that regulates what you do during a day.  It regulates sleeping patterns.   Also body temperature, hormones and fluid regulation. Muscle response to stimulation is stronger in late afternoon.  A 2012 study (Mora-Rodriguez et al.) looked at electrically-induced response in weight lifters.  And they looked at voluntary contraction too, comparing morning and afternoon response.  All weightlifters were men.  All were described as highly trained elite weightlifters. The weightlifters lived in a research facility and were denied caffeine for 4 days before testing.  (That must have been tough.) The study also compared voluntary and electrically induced response in the morning with and without caffeine.  If you are wondering “what is caffeine” get some coffee.  Lifters were given caffeine on a body weight basis.  Caffeine was taken 60 minutes before performance testing.

Study Details: Caffeine, Weightlifting and Performance.

  • Test times were at 10:00 am and 6:00 PM.  Caffeine intake was 3mg per kg.  (if you weigh 80kg.  that’s about 240 mg or  about one 12 ounce cup of extremely strong starbucks style coffee.)  Caffeine was taken 45 minutes before lifting.
  • Morning performance vs. evening performance
  • Morning performance with Caffeine supplement vs. Placebo.

Results

Mother and daughter at Crossfit Seven in Fort Worth, TX.  Caffeine Coffee?  You bet.
Mother and daughter at Crossfit Seven in Fort Worth, TX. Caffeine Coffee? You bet.

Strength and power output with placebo was better in the evening by 3% to 7.5% over morning strength and power output.   Caffeine in the morning increased strength and power output by 4.6% to 5.7% for squats when compared to no morning caffeine.  Electrically invoked response increased by 14.6% and nerve activation jumped 96.8%.  Squats seemed to be more caffeine dependent than bench press.  Maybe mornings are just meant to be spent drinking coffee.

If you are doing Crossfit Open competitions:

This site started as a site for Crossfit Masters Athletes, so here is the info for Crossfit readers:  For people trying to qualify for regionals or the CrossFit Games 2013 this could be important.  Do your Open CrossFit WOD’s in the afternoon.   If you can.  Caffeine in the morning will get your muscles up to the level they’d be if you did your workout in the afternoon.  So when you are competing during a morning WOD, have some coffee 45 minutes before the event.  And don’t forget the four days of abstinence before hand.Last note: caffeine peaks in your blood stream 30-60 minutes after its taken.

  • Abstain from coffee for 4 days before your event
  • Drink Coffee 30-45 minutes before you start
  • Do your event in the afternoon if possible

Note: Tablet or pure caffeine Coffee may not give the same results:

You can read more about the effects of coffee vs caffeine here.

Mora-Rodríguez R, García Pallarés J, López-Samanes Á, Ortega JF, & Fernández-Elías VE (2012). Caffeine ingestion reverses the circadian rhythm effects on neuromuscular performance in highly resistance-trained men. PloS one, 7 (4) PMID: 22496767

CrossFit and Weightlifting Belts: CJ Del Balso

There has been some debate on whether or not CrossFit participants should use weightlifting belts.  We asked Weightlifting coach CJ Del Balso for his thoughts on weightlifting belts.  CJ coaches youth lifters and also offers weightlifting workshops for Masters Athletes at CrossFit EST and CrossFit Iron Horse in the Dallas Fort Worth area.  

CJ Del Balso: It is always better to go without one  [lifting belt] provided your lumbar spine is healthy and your lifting technique is sound; however, there is a place for them in certain circumstances.

WODMasters: What kind of circumstances?

CJ Del Balso:  If an individual has a preexisting low back injury, I don’t have a problem with using a belt in things like heavy squats, dead lifts and the Olympic lifts. This is especially true with masters level lifters where it’s just not worth the risk of incurring another injury.

CJ Del Balso with his lifting team

WODMasters:  Would it be good for Masters to wear lifting belts all the time?  A lot of us already have back issues.

CJ Del Balso:  Even on the movements I mentioned,I do believe it is good to go without a belt as much as possible to strengthen the core without supportive gear. For example, a belt may not be needed on back squats until a certain weight is reached. Because I work primarily with youth lifters, this is not an issue I deal with much. I do not let any of my lifters wear belts other than when we do 1RM back squats but they are also learning proper technique from the very beginning so the risk of injury is minimized.

WODMasters:  Thanks so much.

CJ Del Balso:  I hope that helps and feel free to contact me with any other questions you may have. Take care!

Weightlifting, Belts, CrossFit and Back Injury

Weightlifting belts?  Should lifting belts be worn while weightlifting?  Or during CrossFit WODs?  Or during CrossFit competitions?  Many weightlifters swear by lifting belts.  But some believe weightlifting belts are a crutch that will slow progress.  There are a lot of strong opinions.

One of the dangers with CrossFit and weights is that people can get hurt.  This is especially true when enthusiasm and fatigue cause athletes to choose excessive weight and lose form.  Or worse, never develop good form at all.  We highly recommend attending extra lifting workshops if you are doing CrossFit. CrossFit Lifting Certifications are great too.  Even if you are not a trainer.

Weightlifting belts and how weightlifting belts work.

This belted lifter was called a eunuch.
Unnecessary.  But he did refuse to disprove it.

When a weightlifter (or worker or anyone) lifts a load, pressure on the spine increases.  If pressure is extreme the spine may be immediately damaged (acute damage).  Long term and repeated high pressure to the spine can cause damage over time.  Either of these situations should be avoided.  A weightlifting belt will reduce the amount of compression on the spine.  That is why many workers are required to wear weightlifting belts on the job.

Research on weightlifting belts indicates that it is very important to inhale before the lift.  Even if you are wearing a belt.  This increases intra-abdominal pressure, which reduces stress on the spine.  Inhaling before lifting without a belt also reduces pressure on the spine.  But not as much as inhaling before lifting while also wearing a weightlifting belt.  There are some other things going on too.  Highly technical readers will want to take a look at the reference article below.

Weightlifting belts let you lift heavier weights.

Weight belts let you lift a heavier weight while reducing risk of injury.  Good.

Weightlifting belts reduce trunk muscle activation.

You can get stronger while wearing a belt.  You can get your legs stronger without crushing your spine.  Weight belts can be a good tool for increasing the amount of lift you can do.  You should probably not wear one all the time.  They can be uncomfortable after a while anyway.   This is why no one likes to wear them during CrossFit workouts.  You will see competitive CrossFit athletes using them selectively during CrossFit competition.

Kingma I, Faber GS, Suwarganda EK, Bruijnen TB, Peters RJ, & van Dieën JH (2006). Effect of a stiff lifting belt on spine compression during lifting. Spine, 31 (22) PMID: 17047531

Miyamoto K, Iinuma N, Maeda M, Wada E, & Shimizu K (1999). Effects of abdominal belts on intra-abdominal pressure, intra-muscular pressure in the erector spinae muscles and myoelectrical activities of trunk muscles. Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 14 (2), 79-87 PMID: 10619094

CrossFit in Small Business: Callus Clothing

Callus Clothing’s Ryan Yaeger is a welding sculptor as well as a firefighter, athlete, designer and jack-of-all trades.  Sculpture (and welding) may be his true calling.  Most of his 3-D art work serves a useful purpose.  For example, buildings, storage and furniture.  Here is a photograph of his current work in progress.  At the moment it is called “Desk”. Yaeger is also able to build CrossFit sleds and has made a few for CrossFit Seven, the oldest CrossFit in Fort Worth.  The model he makes is similar to The Dog Sled made by Rogue Fitness.  If you are in Fort Worth or the Dallas-Fort Worth area he can make one for you and save you the shipping charges. 

“Desk” A work in progress by Ryan Yaeger of Callus Clothing.

If you are interested in scrap metal art, sculpture or CrossFit Sleds you can contact Yaeger at www.callusclothing.com

CrossFit-Inspired Clothing by Callus: Great CrossFit T-Shirts.

Great CrossFit T-Shirts can be found at Callus Clothing.

Callus clothing was started by Ryan Yeagar and Ben Rand who both work out at CrossFit Seven in Fort Worth, Texas. Both are single Dads with small children. They started their business as a CrossFit T-Shirt business a few months ago. Their first sales were at CrossFit Seven and they quickly sold out. They are now branching out, traveling to competitions and gear shows with their stuff. Both have day jobs but would love for their business to take off.

Ryan Yeager works as a fire fighter and welder. He also makes some pretty unusual furniture and other constructed things. We are not always sure what they are. But they are cool. He also makes furniture, often assisted by his young son, Lone.

Lone Yeagar looks after his Dad post-WOD

Ben Rand works in construction and remodeling. Both have tattoos and both look like ugly thugs. But they are great community men and they are amazing with kids. Their motto is “Living Life to the Fittest.” And they offer shirts and sweatshirts with this saying at Callus Clothing, They also offer designs featuring kettle bells and the slogan WOD Response Team.

 Ben Rand works in construction and remodeling.

Callus Clothing Kids CrossFit Shirt

You can order shirts from their website. If you are a CrossFit box owner, contact them for bulk orders to sell at your box.  The printing is high quality.  The shirts have a silky feel and did not constrict movement during workouts.  They have also held up well to laundering and drying. 

CrossFit Kids T-Shirts.

Callus clothing also makes unique CrossFit Kids Shirts for young CrossFit athletes.  And for kids who support their athlete-parents.  A favorite is a crossfit kids inspired shirt that reads: “my dad can lift an entire elephant.” A similar shirt reads: “my mom can lift an entire elephant.”  Another design features CrossFit kids going arm over arm on a horizontal ladder.  The shirt reads “Athlete in Training”

Ben Rand of Callus Clothing with small Rands

Hopefully Callus clothing will show up at the CrossFit Southwest regional competition 2013 with their designs.  They were at CrossFit Southwest Regional Competition 2012 to support their box’s CrossFit Competition Team.  They may also travel to other CrossFit Regional Competition. 

CrossFit, The Paleo Diet, Alcohol and Vodka

CrossFit, Paleo Diet, alcohol and athletes.

Main points:

  1. alcohol slows recovery from training and exercise
  2. alcohol increases decline in muscle performance
  3. alcohol impairs nerve response to training and exercise.

About alcohol and athletes and the paleolthic diet (the paleo diet): a lot of athletes follow it.   Especially CrossFit athletes.  And I’ve been hearing a lot about alcohol in the CrossFit community.  Questions floating around have been:  Is Vodka the best drink for people following a paleo diet?  And Is Vodka best for CrossFit?  I’m not sure why these questions are coming up so often.  I would attribute it to geekery.  People with geeky tendencies spend a lot of energy tweeking and micro-adjusting.  You can see this a lot in the Paleo diet community and among CrossFit people as well.  This tendency seems to come with the drive for perfection.

WODMasters -  Gear / Clothing for CrossFit Enthusiasts
Your purchase helps provide a CrossFit membership for a needy teen.

I was asked an interesting question by a teenager who has cut milk and juice out of his diet because they are “unhealthy”.  He follows the paleo diet.  You don’t need juice or milk to have a healthy diet.  But the question was not about that.  The young person asked if he should drink Vodka because he had read that it was “the healthiest drink.”

Is drinking alcohol good for athletes?

That was funny.  You might think “good try bud.”  But it wasn’t all funny because he is sincere in wanting to be healthy.  And sincere in following the paleo diet.  I mentioned the story to an adult friend who is also follows the paleo diet and received “funny” and authoritative response.  “That is actually true.”  Where is this idea about vodka coming from?  I thought “maybe Mark’s Daily Apple?”  But Mark is pretty good about outlining the good and the bad.  Alcohol can be quite dangerous when used recklessly.  It can also be dangerous when used in ignorance.  Are there other teens out there who think they should be downing vodka after weighlifting?  Other adults?  Is alcohol bad for athletes? Is alcohol Paleo?

A young boy rests between lifts at CrossFit Seven in Fort Worth, TX.  This is not the kid who asked about Vodka

Looking at alcohol and athletics from current research: athletes should not drink alcohol after training.  Even moderate amounts slow recovery.  And even moderate mounts reduce strength (Barnes et al. 2010).  Alcohol also seems to impair activation of muscle contraction. (Barnes et al. 2012).  For a current (2010) review of what’s known and what still needs work the Vella paper is a good place to start.  You can read it free here.

Research so far, and a lot of anecdotal evidence, indicates that alcohol (ethanol) is not good for athletic performance.  And that alcohol is not good strength gain.  Feel free and comfortable telling this to any teens who ask about alcohol and health.  Or about alcohol and athletes.  As for the “is alcohol paleo?” question one could think about evolution and selective pressure.

Is Alcohol Paleo?

Since the Paleo Diet is an attempt to follow a pre-agricultural diet we’ll have to use our imaginations to answer that question.  Were paleolithic people (or monkeys or australopithecus) who drank alcohol more likely to reproduce and pass along their genes?  Let’s guess yes on reproduction.  Survival of offspring  . . . might depend on how drunk, how often.  Let’s guess the occasional handful of fermented berries would have given best odds.

Barnes MJ, Mündel T, & Stannard SR (2010). Acute alcohol consumption aggravates the decline in muscle performance following strenuous eccentric exercise. Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia, 13 (1), 189-93 PMID: 19230764

Barnes MJ, Mündel T, & Stannard SR (2012). The effects of acute alcohol consumption and eccentric muscle damage on neuromuscular function. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme, 37 (1), 63-71 PMID: 22185621

Vella LD, & Cameron-Smith D (2010). Alcohol, athletic performance and recovery. Nutrients, 2 (8), 781-9 PMID: 22254055 Barnes MJ, Mündel T, & Stannard SR (2010). Acute alcohol consumption aggravates the decline in muscle performance following strenuous eccentric exercise. Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia, 13 (1), 189-93 PMID: 19230764