Caffeine Timing, Time of Day and Athletic Performance

Summary: athletic performance is generally better in the afternoon than in the morning.  Caffeine timing may be important.  Caffeine levels peak in the blood stream 30-60 minutes after ingestion.  Muscles are more responsive to caffeine in the afternoon over morning.  Caffeine abstinence before-hand gives stronger effect.

Compete, if possible, in the afternoon over the morning.

Caffeine timing: caffeine peaks 30-60 minutes after ingestion
Caffeine timing: caffeine peaks 30-60 minutes after ingestion. Check out the designs for WODWOMEN at WODMASTERS

Athletes perform better in the afternoon and early evening than in the morning. This is the case for weightlifting as well as for endurance exercise like running, swimming and cycling.  Even penmanship is less precise in the morning.  Possibly it’s a warm up issue.  But it looks like a circadian rhythm issue too.  The circadian rhythm is an internal clock that regulates what you do during a day.  It regulates sleeping patterns.   Also body temperature, hormones and fluid regulation. Muscle response to stimulation is stronger in late afternoon.  A 2012 study (Mora-Rodriguez et al.) looked at electrically-induced response in weight lifters.  And they looked at voluntary contraction too, comparing morning and afternoon response.  All weightlifters were men.  All were described as highly trained elite weightlifters. The weightlifters lived in a research facility and were denied caffeine for 4 days before testing.  (That must have been tough.) The study also compared voluntary and electrically induced response in the morning with and without caffeine.  If you are wondering “what is caffeine” get some coffee.  Lifters were given caffeine on a body weight basis.  Caffeine was taken 60 minutes before performance testing.

Study Details: Caffeine Timing, Weightlifting and Performance.

  • Test times were at 10:00 am and 6:00 PM.  Caffeine intake was 3mg per kg.  (if you weigh 80kg.  that’s about 240 mg or  about one 12 ounce cup of extremely strong starbucks style coffee.)  Caffeine was taken 45 minutes before lifting.
  • Morning performance vs. evening performance
  • Morning performance with Caffeine supplement vs. Placebo.

Caffeine Timing  Results

Katie of Crossfit Seven is beautiful at months.  She is sporting a WODMASTERS All-Seeing Eye Pood shirt
Katie of Crossfit Seven is beautiful at 8 months. She is sporting a WODMASTERS All-Seeing Eye Pood shirt

Strength and power output with placebo was better in the evening by 3% to 7.5% over morning strength and power output.   Caffeine in the morning increased strength and power output by 4.6% to 5.7% for squats when compared to no morning caffeine.  Electrically invoked response increased by 14.6% and nerve activation jumped 96.8%.  Squats seemed to be more caffeine dependent than bench press.  Maybe mornings are just meant to be spent drinking coffee.

If you are doing Crossfit Open competitions:

This site started as a site for Crossfit Masters Athletes, so here is the info for Crossfit readers:  For people trying to qualify for regionals or the CrossFit Games 2013 this could be important.  Do your Open CrossFit WOD’s in the afternoon.   If you can.  Caffeine in the morning will get your muscles up to the level they’d be if you did your workout in the afternoon.  So when you are competing during a morning WOD, have some coffee 45 minutes before the event.  And don’t forget the four days of abstinence before hand.Last note: caffeine peaks in your blood stream 30-60 minutes after its taken.

  • Abstain from coffee for 4 days before your event
  • Drink Coffee 30-45 minutes before you start
  • Do your event in the afternoon if possible

Note: Tablet or pure caffeine may not give the same results as coffee.

The study discussed here was of the effects of caffeine on athletic performance.  Coffee may provide additional benefits.  You can read more about the effects of coffee vs caffeine here.


Mora-Rodríguez R, García Pallarés J, López-Samanes Á, Ortega JF, & Fernández-Elías VE (2012). Caffeine ingestion reverses the circadian rhythm effects on neuromuscular performance in highly resistance-trained men. PloS one, 7 (4) PMID: 22496767

Quinoa Stimulates Protein Synthesis via Phytoecdysteroids

I’m not sure where Quinoa falls on the dietary good-evil spectrum these days.  Many value it for its high protein and mineral content.  It can be a staple food for the health-minded vegetarian.  On the other side of the spectrum, Quinoa has been on the do-not-eat list for followers of the Paleo diet because advocates consider it to be a grain.  Paleo dieters have also been concerned that Quinoa contains saponins. Some have proposed that saponins may damage the intestines.  However saponins are beneficial anti-oxidants and some are health-protective.  For a more general discussion of Quinoa and why it should be an excellent addition to the paleo diet click here.

Phytoecdysteroids  in quinoa can help promote protein synthesis
Phytoecdysteroids in quinoa can help promote protein synthesis

Quinoa is high in protein, flavonoids and phytoecdysteroids

Analysis of quinoa extract shows that quinoa contains:

  • 20% protein
  • 11% oil
  • 2.6% flavonoid glycosides
  • 1% phytoecdysteroids (this is very high compared to other plants)
Crossfit trainer amie taylor crossfit seven with phytoecdysteroids
Crossfit Trainer Amie Taylor of CrossFit Seven gets ready for the snatch

Protein, as we all know, is important for building strength and muscle mass.  Protein is also important in preserving muscle mass and functionality in older people.  Protein intake may be important to long-term health.  Its not just an issue for athletes and body-builders. Flavonoid glycosides are health protective anti-oxidants.   Quinoa contains high amounts of phytoecdysteroids.   These are thought to be part of a plants phytoecdysteroids.  However, they may be good for people.  There are many different phytoecdysteroids. The dominant phytoecdysteroid in quinoa is 20HE.

Beneficial effects of phytoecdysteroids

There have been a number of studies showing different positive effects of phytoecdysteroids or of qunoia extract.

  • Quinoa extract lowered blood glucose in obese, hyperglycemic mice
  • Phytoecdysteroids increased protein synthesis in animals with and without exercise
  • 20HE (the predominant phytoecdysteroid in quinoa) has anabolic-like properties that promote protein synthesis
  • 20HE Increased muscle fiber size
  • Phytoecdysteroids Inhibited tumor growth
  • Quinoa extract increased metabolic rate and may be an anti-obesogen
Phytoecdysteroids  in quinoa can help promote protein synthesis
Crossfit masters athlete Angie Bender at CrossFit Seven supports WODMASTERS. Join us! Wear the shirt!

How phytoecdysteroids work is not completely understood.  They do not seem to act in the same way as anabolic steroids.  So far, phytoecdysteroids show very low toxicity in mammals but limited (if any) testing has been done in humans.

Dinan L (2009). The Karlson Lecture. Phytoecdysteroids: what use are they? Archives of insect biochemistry and physiology, 72 (3), 126-41 PMID: 19771554

Báthori M, Tóth N, Hunyadi A, Márki A, & Zádor E (2008). Phytoecdysteroids and anabolic-androgenic steroids–structure and effects on humans. Current medicinal chemistry, 15 (1), 75-91 PMID: 18220764

Foucault AS, Even P, Lafont R, Dioh W, Veillet S, Tomé D, Huneau JF, Hermier D, & Quignard-Boulangé A (2014). Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet. Physiology & behavior, 128, 226-31 PMID: 24534167

Quinoa is high in Protein and Stimulates Protein Synthesis from WODMASTERS

Phytoecdysteroids  in quinoa can help promote protein synthesis
Phytoecdysteroids in quinoa can help promote protein synthesis

I’m not sure where Quinoa falls on the dietary good-evil spectrum these days.  Many value it for its high protein and mineral content.  It can be a staple food for the health-minded vegetarian.  On the other side of the spectrum, Quinoa has been on the do-not-eat list for followers of the Paleo diet because advocates consider it to be a grain.  Paleo dieters have also been concerned that Quinoa contains saponins. Some have proposed that saponins may damage the intestines.  However saponins are beneficial anti-oxidants and some are health-protective.  For a more general discussion of Quinoa and why it should be an excellent addition to the paleo diet click here.

Quinoa is high in protein, flavonoids and phytoecdysteroids

Analysis of quinoa extract shows that quinoa contains:

  • 20% protein
  • 11% oil
  • 2.6% flavonoid glycosides
  • 1% phytoecdysteroids (this is very high compared to other plants)
Crossfit trainer amie taylor crossfit seven with phytoecdysteroids
Crossfit Trainer Amie Taylor of CrossFit Seven gets ready for the snatch

Protein, as we all know, is important for building strength and muscle mass.  Protein is also important in preserving muscle mass and functionality in older people.  Protein intake may be important to long-term health.  Its not just an issue for athletes and body-builders. Flavonoid glycosides are health protective anti-oxidants.   Quinoa contains high amounts of phytoecdysteroids.   These are thought to be part of a plants phytoecdysteroids.  However, they may be good for people.  There are many different phytoecdysteroids. The dominant phytoecdysteroid in quinoa is 20HE.

Beneficial effects of phytoecdysteroids

There have been a number of studies showing different positive effects of phytoecdysteroids or of qunoia extract.

  • Quinoa extract lowered blood glucose in obese, hyperglycemic mice
  • Phytoecdysteroids increased protein synthesis in animals with and without exercise
  • 20HE (the predominant phytoecdysteroid in quinoa) has anabolic-like properties that promote protein synthesis
  • 20HE Increased muscle fiber size
  • Phytoecdysteroids Inhibited tumor growth
  • Quinoa extract increased metabolic rate and may be an anti-obesogen
Phytoecdysteroids  in quinoa can help promote protein synthesis
Crossfit masters athlete Angie Bender at CrossFit Seven supports WODMASTERS. Join us! Wear the shirt!

How phytoecdysteroids work is not completely understood.  They do not seem to act in the same way as anabolic steroids.  So far, phytoecdysteroids show very low toxicity in mammals but limited (if any) testing has been done in humans.

Dinan L (2009). The Karlson Lecture. Phytoecdysteroids: what use are they? Archives of insect biochemistry and physiology, 72 (3), 126-41 PMID: 19771554

Báthori M, Tóth N, Hunyadi A, Márki A, & Zádor E (2008). Phytoecdysteroids and anabolic-androgenic steroids–structure and effects on humans. Current medicinal chemistry, 15 (1), 75-91 PMID: 18220764

Foucault AS, Even P, Lafont R, Dioh W, Veillet S, Tomé D, Huneau JF, Hermier D, & Quignard-Boulangé A (2014). Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet. Physiology & behavior, 128, 226-31 PMID: 24534167

Chewing gum as a means of keeping teeth strong

Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become progressively thin, brittle and frail.  Most of us are probably well aware that osteoporosis can be a debilitating or even crippling.  Exercise, especially weight-bearing exercise, builds bone and protects against osteoporosis and frailty later in life.  Unfortunately, only bone under stress seems to benefit.  For example, runners, who carry their own body weight, tend to have stronger leg bones than cyclists.

Osteoporosis and teeth: keeping teeth strong

Fewer may be aware that osteoporosis can affect the condition of our teeth too.   Osteoporosis can cause thinning of the bone material anchoring teeth.   Keeping teeth strong may help prevent tooth loss and other dental problems.

wodmasters birth of venus kettlebell shirt.  Good for healthy teeth and keeping teeth strong
Womens workout shirt: Botticelli’s Birth of Venus hoists her kettlebells against a stylized American background.

Can exercise help in keeping teeth strong and health?

There is some evidence that exercise can improve or protect dental health.  The only study found in a literature search of Web Of Knowledge saw less tooth loss among older Japanese men who exercised daily (Yoshida et al. 2001.)  This doesn’t quite tell us enough, because of other variables that are also associated with more or less tooth loss such as hygiene, frequency of professional care, dietary habits and smoking. The study did not look at any exercise that might specifically target facial bone or jaw muscles.  Few forms of exercise will target the bones or muscles that support our teeth (although some do manage to make an exception here.  Look around and check facial expressions during heavy lifts).  Still, the study indicates that exercise may help protect against tooth loss or weakness. It is important that jaw and facial bones stay healthy.  If they degrade they will not be able to hold onto your teeth.  Unfortunately, there has been very little research on exercise and tooth loss.

Is chewing gum good exercise for the bones supporting teeth?

Chewing gum good for teeth.  Experienced as Hell Tank Masters Athletes Protein Chewing gum may strengthen jaw bones and could protect chewers from tooth loss or improve the outcome of periodontal disease by providing exercise.  Little work has been done in this area.  The only chewing gum-specific study I could find was by a research team in Russia who studied the effect of chewing gum on bone density in 93 periodontal patients (Loginova et al. 2006.) Bone density in these patients increased on the active chewing side.   For optimal effect make sure to switch your gum from right to left periodically.  Goes for the rest of your training too. The full paper is available in Russian. Yoshida Y, Hatanaka Y, Imaki M, Ogawa Y, Miyatani S, & Tanada S (2001). Epidemiological study on improving the QOL and oral conditions of the aged–Part 2: Relationship between tooth loss and lifestyle factors for adults men. Journal of physiological anthropology and applied human science, 20 (6), 369-73 PMID: 11840690 Loginova NK, Veĭsgeĭm LD, & Churina SV (2006). [Influence of course use of chewing gum on alveolar bone density]. Stomatologiia, 85 (2), 22-4 PMID: 16710273

Insights on the Crossfit body by Rational Jenn

So, I’ve been thinking a lot about body image and body acceptance for a while now. It is a tricky thing, figuring out how to get rid of conflicting and sometimes crazy notions of what I “should” look like and come to terms with both reality and how my brain works.

You’d think, after three and a half years of CrossFit, after five or so years of really eating well, after losing about seventy pounds, I’d look like those ab-muscled, sleek women in those fitspo images.

Instead, I look like this:

Rational Jenn of www.rationaljenn.blogspot.com
Rational Jenn of www.rationaljenn.blogspot.com

 

And I am beginning to finally be okay with it.

I have begun to accept that after years of obesity, producing three kids, and now heading toward menopause (hopefully not for a while yet, but I’m 43 so it’s on the horizon), and also just not having a terribly genetic propensity toward leanness in the first place (definitely an endomorph type), abs just maybe aren’t in the cards. Actually, I have lots of abs, but they (and many other muscles) are “camouflaged.” 🙂

But still, I worry. I worry what people think when they hear I’ve been CrossFitting for so long, because I don’t fit the image. I worry they think I am exaggerating or even flat-out lying when I say that I usually eat really cleanly and am extremely active. I worry nobody will ever want me to coach them because I carry too much body fat. (Too much by whose standards?)

I get irritated at the advice to “just” eat paleo or more carbs or fewer carbs or protein or avoid this or take that supplement. Eat dairy; avoid dairy. Red wine’s fine; avoid all the alcohol. Eat nuts; OMG don’t even. Honey, I’ve tried it all, and still haven’t figured out my ideal combination yet. That’s okay. I’ll keep trying. And yes, I’ve got hypothyroidism and a busy life and an allergy to grocery shopping regularly, so those factors don’t help either. Those aren’t excuses–they are facts about my life right now, things I need to work around. (Context: just like assholes, everyone’s got one.)

 

I get truly pissed off when I hear people disparage “fatties” for going to the gym or having the nerve to run in a 5K race (overheard a guy complaining about all the fatties once during a race, and for all I know, he was talking about me). You can’t tell what a person can do just by looking at them. Trust me. I’ve been overtaken in 5K races by enough pregnant women and other folks who are probably twenty years older than me. You can’t tell just by looking.

I hate that I really considered not undertaking my new obsession, kettlebell sport (which is so awesome OMG, and you’re going to be hearing a lot about this new sport in the coming years as it becomes more popular, which it surely will, in part because I am writing about it here on my world famous blog)…. Anyway, I almost didn’t even try it because it is a weight-classed sport. It took some nerve to do my first competition, I tell you, but it all worked out fine in the end. Didn’t even faze me in my second competition.

But enough of what I hate and worry about. Here is what I do and here is what I am.

  • I recently pulled a 265 pound deadlift. Not too shabby.
  • I can do pull ups, and toes-to-bar, and handstands, and all kinds of badass moves.
  • I achieved Rank 1 in Kettlebell Sport Long Cycle. I can snatch a 20kg kettlebell and jerk a 24kg bell. (Heh. I said snatch. And jerk. And yes, I’m still 12 in my head and no, I still haven’t stopped laughing at those terms, despite all this time in CF).
  • I finished my third CrossFit Open and did not suck at all the things. I can do 84 thrusters and 84 bar-facing burpees and not die.
  • I also do not suck at yoga, being pretty strong and naturally flexible. Speaking of awesome yoga people, this is a great post I recently discovered, and is the inspiration for the title of this post. I second all the things she says.
  • I generally feel awesome, and last time I had all the basic bloodwork done, the results were in the “pretty much fucking awesome” category. My resting heart rate is usually around 55-60 beats per minute (which that dude complaining about all the fatties in the race would surely never believe).
  • I can teach people how to move well and make it fun and interesting and motivate them to keep going. I have people, mostly women, ask me for ideas regularly about moving well and getting back on the exercise horse (so to speak, I don’t know nothing ’bout horses). I think I am sought out because they know I know about the struggle to keep doing it, to stay motivated, to keep trying your hardest even though there will not be size zero dresses in the future. How we all know size zero dresses aren’t and shouldn’t be the goal, but that it’s hard to get that idea out of one’s head. How it takes effort to renew your courage and keep walking into the gym when you still are not lean after all this time, even though you know that the only person really even worried about that part is you, that nobody else at the gym cares about that even a little. And how challenging it is, this ever-lasting puzzle, worse than that 2048 game, to figure out how to keep your focus where it needs to be (health and fitness and mobility and strength) and not body fat percentage, and yet try to find a place where it is okay to want to improve one’s appearance.

So those are some things I’ve been wanting to say for a while. And for the record, here is what a real CrossFitter looks like:

 

Also: KETTLEBELL SPORT. You heard it here first, people (well, many of you). ALL the cool kids will be doing this soon. It’s sweeping the nation. So look out!
Edited to add: Note on the title of the post: Just to get it out of the way…I’m not saying that those folks with all the abs don’t look awesome, because of course they do! This post is just to show what A (one, singular) real-life person who does CF and eats cleanly looks like. A data point, an example among many others, understanding that there is a certain amount of variance within the population. So…not intended to be THE one and only example, etc. etc. etc. I’m not into fat-shaming OR fit-shaming.

Is Chewing Gum Good for Teeth? Exercise and gum may protect your jaws and prevent tooth loss.

Exercise, especially weight-bearing exercise, builds bone and protects against osteoporosis and frailty later in life.  Unfortunately, only bone under stress seems to benefit.  For example, runners, who carry their own body weight, tend to have stronger leg bones than cyclists.  Crossfit provides excellent training for bone strength.  It includes weighted movements that target, stress and should strengthen most of the bones in the human body.  That is provided you don’t over train and damage them or have an accident (see post on the risks and benefits of box jumps.)

crossfit masters athlete John Mariotti
Crossfit Masters Athlete John Mariotti trains for the crossfit games

Exercise may help protect against tooth loss or weakness.

One area that weight lifting and most forms of exercise will not target are the bones that make up our jaws (although some do manage to make an exception here.  Look around and check facial expressions during heavy lifts).  It is important that these bones stay healthy.  If they degrade they will not be able to hold onto your teeth.  Unfortunately, there has been very little research on exercise and tooth loss.  The only study found in a literature search of Web Of Knowledge saw less tooth loss among older Japanese men who exercised daily (Yoshida et al. 2001.)  This doesn’t quite tell us enough, because of other variables that are also associated with more or less tooth loss such as hygiene, frequency of professional care, dietary habits and smoking.

Is chewing gum good exercise for the bones supporting teeth?

Chewing gum good for teeth.  Experienced as Hell Tank Masters Athletes Protein
Gum chewing good for teeth?  Maybe yes.

Chewing gum may strengthen jaw bones and could protect chewers from tooth loss or improve the outcome of periodontal disease.  A research team in Russia studied the effect of chewing gum on bone density in 93 periodontal patients (Loginova et al. 2006.) Bone density increased on the active chewing side.   For optimal effect make sure to switch your gum from right to left periodically.  Goes for the rest of your training too. The full paper is available in Russian.   Yoshida Y, Hatanaka Y, Imaki M, Ogawa Y, Miyatani S, & Tanada S (2001). Epidemiological study on improving the QOL and oral conditions of the aged–Part 2: Relationship between tooth loss and lifestyle factors for adults men. Journal of physiological anthropology and applied human science, 20 (6), 369-73 PMID: 11840690   Loginova NK, Veĭsgeĭm LD, & Churina SV (2006). [Influence of course use of chewing gum on alveolar bone density]. Stomatologiia, 85 (2), 22-4 PMID: 16710273

Age and Exercise-induced Muscle Damage can increase risk of heat stress.

Muscle damage and heat and age.

Many people dislike working out in the heat.  There are also serious safety concerns to consider.  Heat stress, or course, can kill . . . it can also make people sick.  Those who recover from heat stroke, the more severe form of heat illness, can suffer life-long difficulties with regulation of body temperature.  Older people, and presumably older athletes, are more vulnerable to heat stress.  There may be many reasons for this.  Older people may sweat less and they may sweat less efficiently (Inoie 1996).  Vasodilation, an important cooling mechanism that shunts blood flow to the surface where it can cool, is less efficient in older adults as well (Smith et al. 2013). Thirdly, older athletes may be slower to recover from exercise-induced muscle damage.  Exercise-induced muscle damage can increase production of pyrogens, specifically interleukin-6, tumor necrosis actor and interleukin-1-beta (Fortes et al. 2013). This research is important (and new at least as of 2013). The next section of this article addresses risk factors for heat illness.  Please skip ahead if you know all this stuff already.

Risk Factors for Heat IIlness other than Muscle Damage

There are many known risk factors for heat illnesses.  Among them are:

  • Being in poor physical condition
  • Being overweight
  • Various medical conditions
  • Already being under stress from lack of sleep
  • Being over-dressed
  • Working out in hot, humid conditions
  • Not being heat acclimated

Some people will still get heat stroke or heat illness even though they have not been suffering from any of the above conditions.  The research discussed here is an attempt to determine if exercise-induced muscle damage increases risk of heat injuries.  The hypothesis is that muscle damage increases inflammation, which upregulates productions of pyrogens, which adds additional heat stress.   Additional heat stress, induced by the pyrogens, may be enough to tip an individual into heat illness or heat stroke.  Pyrogens, for those who don’t know, are chemical agents that trigger fevers.

There is good evidence that exercise can cause fever.  And that fevers can be blocked by anti-bodies that oppose inflammatory agents.  A previous study collected plasma following an exercise protocol and injected it into rats.  The rats then developed fevers. A second group of rats were injected with human plasma collected from donors prior to exercise, and no rat fevers developed.

Protocol for heat and muscle damage study:

Subjects for the muscle damage study were 13 young men (not heat acclimated).  The muscle damage was induced by having subjects run downhill (at a -10% gradient) for 60 minutes (For those who commented that a -10% grade run for 60 minutes couldn’t possibly cause muscle damage . . . it will if you are not adapted to running downhill.)   The second protocol required that subjects run at a +1% gradient, that was not muscle damaging.  Subjects performed the tests twice, 14 days apart, in a counterbalanced manner.  Researchers assessed evidence of heat strain 30 minutes after the protocol and again 24 hours after completion of the protocol.  The time point of 24 hours post-protocol was chosen to coincide with peak (or close to peak) inflammatory response.  Please see the figure for clarification.   For full details please read the original paper (reference below).

Heat Stress Experimental Protocol
Experimental protocol

 

Results

Rectal temperatures were higher 30 minutes after the downhill runs, even though both protocols were of the same exercise intensity.  In addition, Interleukin-6 was elevated following the downhill run and subjects reported feeling “hotter”.  Rectal temperatures had decreased 24 hrs later, but remained slightly higher than normal (0.17 degrees C).  That 0.17 degrees is probably not physiologically significant, but interesting that it was still elevated an entire day after the workout.  Researchers also acknowledged that eccentric exercise impairs glucose synthesis, therefore it remains possible that diminished glucose may have contributed to the results found in the study.

What does this mean for us?

One important finding was that pyrogens (interleukin-6) were highest 30 minutes after the protocol.  They remained elevated above normal 24 hours later, but had declined considerably.  Given this information, one can imagine that individuals completing multiple workouts in quick sucession (as happens during crossfit competitions) may experience staggered accumulations of pyrogens.  This would leave athletes at greatest risk of heat illness or heat stroke at the end of the workout cycle (or sequence of WODs).  If you are a Crossfit trainer, competitor or interested spectator you may wish to take any potential increased vulnerability to heat stroke or heat illness into consideration. People at risk of rhabdomyolysis are likely at increased risk of heat illness as well.  Fever, after all, is one of several signs of rhabdo. The question may be raised (and its an interesting one): Will taking anti-inflammatories protect someone from heat stroke or heat illness? I would need to read more on that, but off the top, possibly not.  Ibuprofen, for example, increases production of Interleukin-6, which would make the situation worse.  Aspirin?  Maybe, but it may end up causing other problems.

Keeping cool.

A few people have asked for more information on how to keep cool.  Most of these are pretty well-known:

  • Avoid dark colors if you are working out outdoors
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Keep air circulating if you are indoors or use air-conditioning
  • Dress in thin, light, minimal clothing (while avoiding sunburns).

There has been fairly recent research on the effects of hand cooling on internal temperature.  You can read about it here.  I’ve tried running in the heat while holding frozen water bottles.  I think it works.  Lastly, while we all “know” about how to keep cool, a lot of people skip steps.

For those wanting a simpler synopsis of the article and a little more information on heat stroke and heat illness .  .  .

.

Exercise induced Muscle Damage, Heat and Rhabdomyolosis

CrossFit Workout and Heat Stress
CrossFit Workout At CrossFit Seven in Fort Worth, TX

 

Exercise-induced Muscle Damage, Rhabdo and Heat

Most people in CrossFit are probably well aware of risks of rhabdomyolosis.  Rhabdomyolosis occurs when muscles are damaged severely.  Broken down proteins enter the blood stream and can clog up the kidneys.  You can get muscle damage without rhabdomyolosis.  It happens all the time.  Most of the time it is minor and part of training.  However, small amounts of muscle damage may increase a person’s risk of heat illness.

Heat Illnesses include:

  • Heatstroke – is life-threatening.   Temperature can shoot up to the point of brain damage and death.  A person with heat stroke may have dry skin, strong pulse and feel dizzy.
  • Heat exhaustion – not as bad as heat stroke, but can come before heatstroke.  People with heat exhaustion may sweat heavily, have rapid breathing, and a fast pulse.
  • Heat cramps
  • Heat rash

New research shows “exercise-induced muscle damage” increases risk of heat illness.   This is different from exercise-induced heat illness, which may not involve any muscle damage.  The study looked at runners exercising under hot, humid conditions.  Thirty minutes of exercise in hot, humid conditions increased levels of pyrogens in blood over controls.  Pyrogens are substances that cause fever.  Working out in the heat with a fever seems like a particularly bad idea.  The pyrogens subjects’ blood included interleukin 6 which is associated with inflammation. Pyrogens remained higher 24 hours later. This might mean that the risk of heat stress may build a little more every day.  If you do a crossfit workout, or train at anything every day your risk of heat illness may increase a little more every day. People adapt to exercise and heat exposure.  We become better at handling heat over time. The study was done with athletes who were not heat acclimated.  Still, there is reason to be careful.  Subjects exercising in the heat also experienced more muscle soreness the next day.

Conclusion for CrossFit Trainers and CrossFit Athletes

Muscle damage may increase risk of heat stress.  Masters athletes may be at greater risk of heat illness.  If you are a Masters Athlete and notice that you are having a harder time coping with the heat, it is not “all in your head.”  Heat adaptation also happens.  It may take longer than it did when you were in your 20s.  Be patient.  Understanding physiology may help.  It helps for me. Notes:  The featured photo is from CrossFit Heath’s recent fund-raising Masters Crossfit Competition organized by World War Fit.   Bradford CD, Cotter JD, Thorburn MS, Walker RJ, & Gerrard DF (2007). Exercise can be pyrogenic in humans. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 292 (1) PMID: 17197641 Fortes MB, Di Felice U, Dolci A, Junglee NA, Crockford MJ, West L, Hillier-Smith R, Macdonald JH, & Walsh NP (2013). Muscle Damaging Exercise Increases Heat Strain during Subsequent Exercise Heat Stress. Medicine and science in sports and exercise PMID: 23559121 Inoue Y (1996). Longitudinal effects of age on heat-activated sweat gland density and output in healthy active older men. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 74 (1-2), 72-7 PMID: 8891503 Smith CJ, Alexander LM, & Kenney WL (2013). Nonuniform, age-related decrements in regional sweating and skin blood flow. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 305 (8) PMID: 23926135

What CrossFit Masters Athletes wish CrossFit Trainers knew.

Crossfit masters athletes are a growing part of crossfit communities, crossfit boxes and client bases.  Many Masters Athletes have felt ignored or that our unique experiences, injuries and needs are misunderstood by crossfit trainers who have had little knowledge about working with our age group.  Accordingly many are seeking community, support and advice from their peers on Crossfit Masters webpages and facebook groups.  The Crossfit Masters group CFMasters now has over 7,000 members from around the world.  Other groups,that support primarily Crossfit Masters women or masters within a specific age class are also popping up.  Many group members have questions that are masters specific:

  • How long does it take masters to recover from _______ (add type of injury here)?
  • How are other masters dealing with insomnia, or muscle soreness, or flexibility problems?
  • Do masters athletes have specific nutritional needs?
  • What can I do to get faster, stronger, leaner etc.?
  • How are hormonal shifts impacting my performance?

Masters crossfit athletes, masters athletes in general and the need for more research

crossfit masters athlete John Mariotti
Crossfit Masters Athlete John Mariotti trains for the crossfit games

The explosion of interest in participation in Masters Sports and Athletics is quite recent.  The pace of research to address masters athletes needs is just warming up.  Or possibly still parked in the driveway.  Most of the research available to us has focused on health and functionality among the elderly.  While it is useful to look at these studies, studies about us masters would be greatly appreciated.  (Will be writing more on what we have so far soon.  Take a look at our archives for now.)

For Crossfit Trainers working with Masters Athletes: what you should know

Masters Crossfit Woman Training
Crossfit Masters Woman Angie Bender Competes in the 2014 Masters Crossfit Open
  • We want to be treated like athletes, but there are somethings that make us different than other athletes.
  • Understand that we will modify as we physically need to; we are not slackers. We are seasoned enough to distinguish muscle pain from joint distress and will protect ourselves from injury — Leanne Cantrell of CrossFit Mandeville
  • That our joints don’t work the way they used to. Find ways to help us get under the bar more efficiently, to get our elbows up into position, to engage our shoulders — addition from CFMasters athlete
  • “the first thing that came to my mind wasn’t on the list. Specifically that we need substantially more warm up, warm down, and stretching time. Oh, and aligned with some of the other thought already written – that coaches should ask us about our physical state, fitness and health history, any injuries we might have and our goals.”
  • Understand that our eyes are changing and that we don’t have the depth perception we used to.  This makes box jumps harder.  Its also harder for us to shift between near and far vision.  That also makes it harder for us to do box jumps and slows us down.
  • Vision issues can also make it harder for us to be as agile.
  • Many masters men will be concerned about testosterone.  Testosterone can be boosted by working out in a supportive (and co-ed) environment.   Crossfit is perfect for that.  As far as we know working out in a gung-ho co-ed group doesn’t increase cancer risk.
  • We are more likely to rupture a tendon or kill our shins and shoulders.  Have an emergency plan for first aid and for serious injuries.
  • ” New masters athletes appreciate mentoring by experienced masters athletes. Coaches can ask the experienced ones for this support.”
  • “Masters athletes may need to vary our level of intensity, weights or volume from WOD to WOD due to joint stress or other flare ups, I so appreciate when our coaches work on technique instead of going for better times or heavier weights that day.”
  • “That we have learned to finish what we start. Sometimes you just have to let us go to a corner and finish the WOD. We may not be the fastest. But we are persistent.” CFMaster
  • Cheer us on too.  We appreciate it.
Experienced as Hell Tank Masters Athletes Protein
Support your Masters Crossfit Athletes with shirts by WODMASTERS. Drop us an email for group orders.

Here are a few articles that are specific to masters athletes.  We’ll be summarizing these soon.  Keep in touch.

Sillanpää E, Häkkinen A, Laaksonen DE, Karavirta L, Kraemer WJ, & Häkkinen K (2010). Serum basal hormone concentrations, nutrition and physical fitness during strength and/or endurance training in 39-64-year-old women. International journal of sports medicine, 31 (2), 110-7 PMID: 20222003

 

Sallinen J, Pakarinen A, Fogelholm M, Alen M, Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, & Häkkinen K (2007). Dietary intake, serum hormones, muscle mass and strength during strength training in 49 – 73-year-old men. International journal of sports medicine, 28 (12), 1070-6 PMID: 17497592 Another article of interest is: Position Statement (2010). Selected Issues for the Master Athlete and the Team Physician Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 (4), 820-833 DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d19a0b

Honey for wounds, ripped hands, healing and pain relief

If you have tried Crossfit you have probably ripped your hands at some point.  Ripped hands can be painful.  They can also keep you from working out.  Let’s be frank: they look horrible.  Honey may help.  Honey has been used for medicinal purposes for millenia.  I would have dismissed the idea, but I’m investigating the plight of honey bees and colony collapse disorder. and came across some interesting studies of wounds, infection and pain.  There is good evidence that honey relieves pain, speeds healing and prevents or treats infection.  There is also evidence that honey provides anti-oxidants.  Let’s take a look.

Honey and wound healing

Honey may help speed wound healing by acting as an anti-inflammatory.  Application of honey reduces inflammation.  This helps reduce the amount of fluid seeping into the wound.  Reducing inflammation can also help with pain.  Part of wound pain comes from the pressure of swollen tissue on nerves.  Wound healing is also helped by preventing or treating infection.  There have been a number of studies showing faster burn healing with honey when compared to malfenide acetate, a widely used treatment for severe burns.

Honey and infection

Honey may help with infections in several different ways. Honey absorbs wound fluids that support bacteria.  However diluted honey also slows bacterial growth — so there is something else going on as well.  Honey has been found to be effective in inhibiting growth of many different types of bacteria, including MRSA microbes.  Honey is not an anti-septic.  It doesn’t kill bacteria on contact.  It seems to treat or prevent infection by inhibiting bacterial growth.  This would keep infections from developing.  Slowing bacterial growth would give the body’some help in fighting an infection too.

Honey and pain

Honey has pain-killing effects.  This has been testing in rodents.  Rodents can’t express their feelings of pain the way people can. However there should be no placebo effect.  Tests of rats show reduced pain-like behavior after pain infliction when honey was applied.  It is thought that, like other analgesics, honey . . . or something in it . . .  blocks pain receptors.  As mentioned above, honey may also reduce pain by reducing inflammation.

How to use honey for wounds

Medical grade honey is used in hospitals.  Medical grade honey is honey that has been irradiated.  Concerns have been raised about using regular honey for wounds.  This is because honey may contain chlostridium butlinum.  These are the bacteria that cause botulism.  Botulism can be fatal. The radiation kills spores without requiring heating.  Apparently heating honey can destroy some anti-bacterial properties.  Medical grade honey is available online or at some pharmacies if you are concerned about using off-the-shelf honey. Hospital protocol calls for applying honey to wound dressings and then covering the wound.  They also recommend changing the dressing twice a day, especially in the early stages of healing. While there’s a lot of interest in honey for wound treatment and it is being used in some hospitals some scientists advise against it.   Chochrane Reviews , for example advises against using honey for wound treatments because there have not been enough studies yet.  While honey has worked better than conventional dressings in some studies it may not work well under all conditions.  More research is needed to see how it stacks up against other treatments.

Does honey help on hand rips like you get in Crossfit?

This is a very good question.  I intend to try the next time I rip my hands.  Will post pictures.

Experienced As Hell WOD Masters T-Shirt
The WODMASTERS Experienced as Hell Shirt for CrossFit Masters and other tough nuts.

Blaser, G., Santos, K., Bode, U., Vetter, H., & Simon, A. (2007). Effect of medical honey on wounds colonised or infected with MRSA Journal of Wound Care, 16 (8), 325-328 DOI: 10.12968/jowc.2007.16.8.27851 Lusby PE, Coombes AL, & Wilkinson JM (2005). Bactericidal activity of different honeys against pathogenic bacteria. Archives of medical research, 36 (5), 464-7 PMID: 16099322 Owoyele BV, Oladejo RO, Ajomale K, Ahmed RO, & Mustapha A (2014). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey: the involvement of autonomic receptors. Metabolic brain disease, 29 (1), 167-73 PMID: 24318481 Comparison between topical honey and mafenide acetate in treatment of burn wounds

Crossfit Meme Generator

Crossfit meme generator features CrossFit Seven’s Max Effort (aka. Fort Worth Criminal Defense Attorney Andy Platt) showing Trainer Ryan Shupe how MMA differs from Crossfit.  Max has learned quite a lot from his one on one interactions with clients and will be more than happy to share the finer points.  We’ve chosen him for our model because of his dense brow, thickly stubbled jaw, and bad attitude.  If you’ve been arrested and are ready to plea, give him a call.  Make a meme.  Add your own words and generate a custom sign for your webpage or facebook using this link. Or Click on the photo.

Crossfit Meme Generator
Crossfit Meme Generator “No Burpees.” Join us. Wear the Shirt

Join us!  Wear the Shirt!

Remember to support our site with a WODMASTERS T-Shirt. Join us.  Wear the shirt. Our shirts are excellent quality and finely printed. They make excellent gifts for your most-loved crossfit athletes. Shirts are made of 50% cotton, 25% quick-dry polyester and 25% modal. Modal is a plant-based fiber that is often made with bamboo. The fabric is soft as butter, resilient and holds up well in the face of challenging workouts and punishing washers and dryers. Our most awesome designs include “Our Lady of the Kettlebells” for the discriminating Catholic athlete, the Cracked Earth Eyepood Shirt and Mona Lisa Hoists her Bells. Buy directly from us or order through Amazon.

The Experienced as Hell Shirt.  Sometimes the simplest things are better than other things.

We are the proud makers of the “Experienced as Hell” shirt for masters crossfit athletes and other tough nuts.  This design is available in mens short sleeves or tank.  Tanks are high quality, heather grey cotton while the short sleeves are made with top quality, resiliant and quick drying tri-blend fabric.  Thanks.

Experienced As Hell WOD Masters T-Shirt
The WODMASTERS Experienced as Hell Shirt for CrossFit Masters and other tough nuts.

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